The millimeter-wave beam is narrow and has high-definition detail resolution. Compared with laser, its propagation characteristics are less affected by climate and have all-weather characteristics; it is easier to miniaturize than microwave. Ultra-high-speed short-range communication, long-distance interstellar communication, space target recognition, precision tracking, space imaging, ballistic measurement, missile guidance, car, ship, aircraft and other power system collision avoidance, drone, electronic countermeasures, astronomical telescope, anti-terrorism Security inspection, millimeter wave medical treatment and other fields have extraordinary application value.
The application of millimeter wave radar ranging in automobiles has the characteristics of stable detection performance, because the millimeter wave radar is not easily affected by the shape and color of the surface of the object, and is not affected by the large airflow; it also has the characteristics of good environmental adaptability because of the rain. Snow, fog, etc. have little interference with millimeter wave radar.
The operating range of the automotive millimeter wave radar is 21.65-26.65 GHz and 76-81 GHz. The more common automotive millimeter wave radar operating frequency is near the three frequencies of 24GHz, 77GHz, and 79GHz. On December 2, Huaqiang Jufeng Electronic Enthusiast held the third China IoT Conference on Smart Cars (click for free registration) ! Invite the big coffee from NXP, ST, Renesas Electronics, Infineon, and ZTE to share it!
Directly measuring the distance speed, it is the preferred function of ACC, AEB, etc. The radar is used to transmit radio to the surroundings, and the distance, direction and size of the obstacle are calculated by measuring and analyzing the reflected wave. The ability of radar to directly measure distance and speed information makes it a natural advantage for adaptive cruise and collision automatic braking. It is also the most mainstream solution for adaptive cruise.
High penetration, all weather features are a powerful guarantee for other sensors
The application of the camera is becoming more and more abundant, especially after the appearance of the TTC algorithm, the single camera solution can also realize the automatic emergency brake (AEB) function, and the use in single high speed driving still has doubts. Although there are different perceptions in the industry, the mainstream voice still believes that millimeter-wave radars provide a more powerful guarantee for autonomous driving with high penetration and all-weather characteristics. The fusion solution with millimeter wave radar combined with other sensors has higher recognition accuracy and efficiency.
At present, the main frequency bands of automotive millimeter wave radar are 24Ghz and 77Ghz, Japan also uses 60Ghz and 79Ghz used in Taiwan. The main reason for using these bands is that these bands are occupied by other frequency bands, and the attenuation of these bands in the atmosphere is weak. Long distance transmission. The 77GHz is currently considered to be the mainstream of the future, with its main advantages:
1) The detection distance is farther: the bandwidth is larger, and the smaller the antenna, the more concentrated the power is to detect the farther distance;
2) Unique frequency band: It has been allocated to radio astronomy and telecom industrial applications long before the 24GHz in Europe. In order to reduce the interference to them, the EU limits the transmission power of the 24 GHz vehicle millimeter wave radar, which is only used for short-range radar, while the 77Ghz is relatively unique.
AEB assembly improvements will bring rigid demand
At present, the price of millimeter wave radar is mainly at 125-150 US dollars, and the domestic price is more than 1000 RMB. The scale efficiency of millimeter wave radar will increase with the increase of demand. Through industry research, the cost of millimeter-wave radar is expected to fall by half by 2018, which will greatly promote the popularity of millimeter-wave radar. The emphasis on active safety AEBs in various countries will increase penetration in the future and will bring rigid demand for the main sensor millimeter-wave radar.
According to PlunkedtResearch's survey and forecast, the global millimeter wave radar market shipments in 2014 were 19 million. It is estimated that by 2020, the global millimeter wave radar will have nearly 72 million millimeter wave radars, and the compound growth rate in the next five years is about 24 million. %. In the smart car forum, there is a business development manager from the NXP business development Huasheng share the car millimeter wave radar program, click to read the original text can be free registration!
According to our industry research, the domestic sales of vehicle-mounted millimeter-wave radar in 2014 was about 1.2 million, and in 2015 it was about 1.8 million. The main application is short-range radar (24Ghz) for blind spot detection and rear vehicle reminder, which requires two cars per car. The main application of millimeter wave radar is none.
Assumptions: 1) In 2015-2020, China's passenger car compound growth rate is 4%, and by 2020, passenger car sales will be about 24.9 million. 2) In 2020, the permeability of the rear detection/BSD is 15% (requires 2 medium and short-range Thunder); the ACC/AEB function penetration rate is 10% (requires 1 long-range radar, 2 medium-short-range radars) Based on the above assumptions, we estimate that the demand for millimeter-wave radar in 2020 will be nearly 7.7 million, and the compound growth rate in the next five years will be 34%.
The ADAS technology based on millimeter wave radar is mainly monopolized by traditional parts giants such as the mainland, Bosch, Denso, and Autoliv. In the past, radar was the main sensor of the ADAS system. The market share of ADAS can partly explain the overall radar occupancy. The development of the 77GHZ radar is more difficult. Currently, only Bosch, the mainland (subsidiary ADC), Delphi, Denso, TRW (AutoCruise), FujitsuTen, Hitachi and other companies are in control.
The millimeter-wave radar barrier is high, and the back-end control system strategy is the technical core of the component giant. The control of the millimeter-wave radar by the component giant is in addition to the hardware process itself. The processing and decision-making of the millimeter-wave radar signal for the back-end is its core competition. force.
The OEM has got the millimeter-wave radar, and there is no technical support for the parts company. Millimeter wave radar is extremely difficult for domestic development, which is reflected in the following points:
1) The high-frequency millimeter-wave radar chip is in an embargo-controlled state for a long time in China, and it is difficult to have access and development in China;
2) The millimeter-wave radar algorithm must ensure accurate filtering of data information to obtain correct detection targets, while achieving stability and efficiency;
3) Millimeter wave radar involves the active control of high-grade car safety, and the process level is extremely high;
4) Millimeter wave radar is usually supplied with AEB and ACC systems and requires a deep understanding of chassis technology.
The MMIC chip and the antenna PCB are the hardware core of the millimeter wave radar. Taking the FMCW automotive radar system as an example, the antenna mainly includes an antenna, a transceiver module, and a signal processing module.
1) Front-end monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC): It includes a variety of functional circuits, such as low noise amplifier (LNA), power amplifier, mixer, and even transceiver system. It has the characteristics of small circuit loss, low noise, wide frequency band, large dynamic range, high power, high additional efficiency and strong anti-electromagnetic radiation capability.
The key component of the millimeter wave radar is the monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology controlled by foreign semiconductor companies, while the high frequency MMIC is only in the hands of very few foreign chip manufacturers such as Infineon and Freescale. The domestic MMIC is still in its infancy, and Xiamen Yixing and Nanjing Miller are developing radar MMICs, and the performance remains to be verified.
2) Radar antenna high frequency PCB board: The mainstream scheme of millimeter wave radar antenna is microstrip array. Simply put the high frequency PCB board on the common PCB substrate to realize the function of the antenna, and the antenna needs to be kept in a small integrated space. Sufficient signal strength. 77Ghz radar higher specification high frequency PCB board, the wide range of 77GHz radar will bring huge demand for high frequency PCB board. At present, only a few companies such as Rogers and Schweizer have related technologies. Hutong, a domestic PCB board company, has already developed in-depth cooperation with Schweizer.
Some domestic enterprises represented by Huayu Automobile have accumulated more research and development in 24Ghz radar, and the products are about to come out, but the breakthrough of 77Ghz radar is still difficult. 77Ghz has not accumulated much in China before, the biggest reason is that the MMIC chip of 77Ghz radar has been blocked.
Since 2015, the 77GhzMMIC chip has gradually been released for domestic academic and civilian use, and some universities have already obtained related chips. Southeast University is the only key laboratory of millimeter wave radar in the country. It has advanced high-frequency radar test equipment and is at the forefront in the development of domestic millimeter wave radar. More exciting clicks to sign up!
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